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Quick Index

Call letters: The letters that identify a station; for example, WBZ-TV.

Campaign: A specific coordinated advertising effort on behalf of a particular product or service that extends for a specified periodof time.

Car card: Transit advertisement in or on a bus, subway, or commuter train car.

Card rate: The cost of time or space on a rate card.

Carryover effect: The residual level of awareness or recall after a flight or campaign period, used to plan the timing of schedules.

Cash discount: A discount, usually 2 percent, by media to advertisers who pay promptly.

Category Development Index (CDI): A comparative market-by-market measure of a market's total sales of all brands of a single product category, used to evaluate the sales potential of a market for a product category or a brand (see Brand Development Index.

CC: The conclusion of a broadcast; for example, this program runs 11:30 pm:-CC.

Center spread: An advertisement appearing on two facing pages printed on a single sheet in the center of a publication (see Double Truck).

Chain: A broadcast network; also, a newspaper or magazine group of single ownership or control.

Chain break (CB): The time during which a network allows a station to identify itself; usually a 20-second spot (slang "twenty"); now often a 30-second spot plus a ten-second spot, with 20 seconds remaining for identification.

Checking: The process of confirming whether an advertisement actually appeared.

Checking copy: A copy of a publication that is supplied by the medium to show that an advertisement appeared as specified.

Circulation: In print, the number of copies distributed; in broad- cast, the number of households within a signal area that have re- ceiving sets; in outdoor, the number of people who have a reason- able opportunity to see a billboard.

City zone: A central city and the contiguous areas that cannot be distinguished from it.

City zone circulation: The number of newspapers that are distributed within a city, rather than in outlying areas.

Classified advertising: Advertising that is set in small type and arranged according to categories or interests.

Classified display advertising: Classified advertising of a larger size than most other classified advertising, possibly with headlines, illustrations, and so on; classified advertising with some of the characteristics of display advertising (see Display advertising.

Class magazines: Special-interest magazines with desirable upscale audiences.

Clearance: Coverage of national television households by the number of stations (or markets) accepting a network program for airing; also, gaining available time on stations to carry a program or com- mercial.

Clear time: The process of reserving time or time periods with a station or network; checking on available advertising time.

Click-Through Rate (CTR): CTR, or click-through rate, is the rate at which visitors click an advertisement, usually calculated as a percentage of ad impressions. The current industry standard CTR for 468x60 banner ads is about 0.25%. Highest CTRs are usually generated using fake "message waiting" or javascript warning ads, which often have little or no relevance to their target site. Ads of this kind can generate CTRs up to 11% or more, but, due to their nuisance value, can be detrimental to the hosting site.

Clipping bureau: An organization that aids in checking print adver- tising by clipping the advertisements from print media.

Closing date: The final deadline set by print media for advertising material to appear in a certain issue: in broadcast, the term "closing hour" may be used.

Closure: A sale resulting from following up on an inquiry from dir- ect mail advertising.

Column inch: Publication space that is one column wide by one-inch high, used as a measure of advertising space.

Combination rate: A special discounted advertising rate for buying space in two or more publications owned by the same interests.

Commercial impressions: The total audience, including duplication, for all commercial announcements in an advertiser's schedule (see Gross impressions.

Confirmation: A broadcast media statement that a specific time is still open for purchase by an advertiser who is preparing a broad- cast advertising schedule.

Consumer profile: A demographic description of the people or house- holds that are prospects for a product or service (see Target group).

Contiguity rate: A reduced broadcast advertising rate for sponsoring two or more programs in succession; for example, an advertiser par- ticipating in two programs running from 7:00 pm: - 7:30 pm, and then 7:30 pm - 8:00 pm, may qualify for a contiguity rate.

Controlled circulation: Circulation that is limited to persons who qualify to receive a publication; often distributed free to quali- fied persons.

Cooperative advertising: Retail advertising that is paid partly or fully by a manufacturer; two or more manufacturers cooperating in a single advertisement (slang "co-op").

Cooperative announcement: Commercial time in network programs that is made available to stations for sale to local or national adver- tisers.

Cooperative program: A network broadcast that is also sold on a local basis and sponsored by both national and local advertisers; for example, "The Tonight Show" (see Network cooperative program).

Corporate discounting: Incentives offered to advertisers with numer- ous brands of products; all of the corporation's advertising sched- ules are combined for a larger discount level.

Cost per rating point (CPR) The figure indicates the dollar cost of advertising exposure to one percentage point of the target group, audience, or population (see Rating point).

Cost per thousand (CPM): A dollar comparison that shows the relative cost of various media or vehicles; the figure indicates the dollar cost of advertising exposure to a thousand households or individuals.

Cost per thousand per commercial minute (CPM/PCM): The cost per thousand of a minute of broadcast advertising time.

Coverage: The number or percentage of individuals or households that are exposed to a medium or to an advertising campaign.

Cover position: An advertisement on the cover of a publication, often at a premium cost; first cover=outside front cover; second cover=inside front cover; third cover=inside back cover; fourth cover=outside back cover.

Cowcatcher: A brief commercial announcement at the beginning of a broadcast program.

CPA: CPA, or cost per action, is an ad payment model in which advertisers pay only when an ad display leads to a completed sale, registration, download, etc. Virtually all affiliate network advertising can be thought of as CPA. Low-volume sites will find it difficult, if not impossible, to generate revenue through CPA advertising, as a large quantity of banner displays would be needed to generate actual sales. A typical CPA ad may generate a CTR (click-through-rate) of 1%, followed by a conversion rate (the rate at which users complete a sale or registration) of 1%. At those comparatively high levels, 10,000 banners would have to be displayed to generate one sale. For this reason, commissions must be high enough to translate into a reasonable CPM for the web publisher. In the previous example, a commission on sales of $5.00 would translate to a CPM of $0.50, which is low but not unreasonable in today's market for banner ads.

CPC: A performance-based pricing model for advertising sales, CPC, or cost per click pays publishers based on number of clicks on a specific ad. Most ad networks, logically enough, only pay once per click per user within a specified time period, generally 24 hours or more. CPC rates can vary greatly, from $0.01 to $0.05 for low-scale networks, up to $0.35 or more for more reputable ad networks.

CPL: Similar to CPA (cost per action), the CPL ad pricing model pays web publishers for every banner click that results in a lead or inquiry for the advertiser. In other words, advertisers pay publishers only when a visitor not only click the ad and visit the advertiser's site, but also performs a desired action on that site (such as request information via an online form).

CPM: CPM, or cost per thousand (the M is from the Roman numeral for thousand, which was derived from the Latin "mille"), is the price an advertiser pays for each 1000 displays of a banner ad. As opposed to performance-based models such as CPA or CPC, CPM rates guarantee web publishers revenue for each ad displayed, whether the visitor clicks it or not, and are thus usually preferable to CPC or CPA models. CPM levels at the most common ad networks range from $0.20 - $1.50 for 468x60 banners, up to $5.00 - $8.00 for popups, popunders and layer ads, and potentially higher for interstitials and full page ads.

Crossplugs: In alternating sponsorships, permitting each advertiser to insert one announcement into the program during the weeks when the other advertiser is the sponsor, maintaining weekly exposure for both (see Alternate sponsorship.

Cumulative audience: Cumulative broadcast rating; the net undupli- cated audience of a station or network during two or more time periods; also used to describe how many different households or people are reached by an advertising schedule (also called "accum- ulative audience," "net audience," and "unduplicated audience"); technically, a cumulative audience is those persons who were ex- posed to any insertion of an advertisement in multiple editions of a single vehicle, whereas an unduplicated audience is those persons who were exposed to any insertion of an advertisement in a combinat- ion of vehicles or media, counting each person only once (slang) "cume".

Cumulative reach: The number of different households that are ex- posed to a medium or campaign during a specific time.

Cut-in: The insertion of a local commercial announcement into a net- work or recorded program.

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