* Beginner's mind. Encourage coachees to look at each situation with a beginner's mind and from the premise that they can learn something from it.
* Personal stretch goals. Encourage people to set stretch goals that are consistent with their highest aspirations, thus creating a context that enables people to achieve what's really possible, to think outside the box, and to bring out the best in themselves and those around them.
* Committed listening and speaking. Speak with honesty and integrity and listen with empathy so as to step into the other person's frame of reference.
* Fluid framing. Personal transformation, completing relationships, and breakthrough solutions require helping people to see things in a new way. "The way you see (XYZ) is... The frames, opinions, and assumptions (XYZ) is based on are ... A more empowering way of seeing (XYZ) might be...."
* Effective action maps. When people have gotten stuck or are ineffective, action maps provide a useful tool for gaining both the incremental and the deep learning necessary to alter people's strategies and redesign their actions.
* Constructive feedback script. "What I observe about you is... My assessment is... and I feel.... What I want from you is..."
* Unwritten rules assessment. Consider whether resistance to change is caused by people's disagreement with formal policy or by blocked mental models or because the unwritten rules of behavior make resistance the logical way to behave.
* Planning breakthrough projects. A breakthrough project involves a group setting a short-term, measurable goal that can be achieved with existing resources, authority, and change readiness. People achieve extraordinary results and develop a "can do" attitude.
* Making powerful promises and requests. Holding people accountable for making sincere commitments with explicit conditions of satisfaction can eliminate breakdowns and can forward action.
* Collaborative conversation ground rules. These ground rules help generate shared understanding and coherent action by encouraging people to consider diverse views, to balance advocacy and inquiry, and to discuss the undiscussable in a way that does not harm relationships.
* Working the ladder of inference. The ladder of inference is a tool that helps people with different views and perspectives build common understanding by both reversing and externalizing their thinking processes.
* Designing role plays. Role plays are used to prepare for difficult conversations or to allow someone to take another person's view and argue that side of the conversation with the idea of learning from it.
* Distinguishing observations from assessments. Help people to distinguish between witnessable observations and subjective opinions or judgments so that they can see where they have jumped to conclusions, made negative psychological assessments, or projected their judgments on others.